Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science

Contents of Volume 80, 2019

A Benchtop Approach To Measuring S-AdenosylMethionine Metabolite Levels Using HILIC UPLC-MS
Stuart Oehrle, Kathryn SP Higginbotham, Erin D. Strome
80(1), 1-5, (10 September 2019)
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Do Conservation Practices Bring Quick Changes to Key Soil Properties for Resource-Limited Farmers?
Sait Sarr, Maheteme Gebremedhin, Mark Coyne, Avinash Topè, Karamat Sistani, Shawn Lucas
80(1), 6-16, (17 October 2019)
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Exploring the Potential Impact of Louisville's Urban Heat Island on the Structure and Intensity of an Organized Convective Systems
L. J. Twohey, J. Naylor
80(1), 17-26, (8 November 2019)
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The Urban Heat Island at a Regional University in Kentucky, USA
Donald M. Yow, Matthew Ruggless
80(1), 27-37, (21 November 2019)
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Publishing in the Journal

All manuscripts and correspondence concerning manuscripts should be addressed to the Editors:

Drs. Kelly Watson and Walter Borowski

The Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science (JKAS) accepts manuscripts throughout the year and articles are published when they are completed, on an Issue-in Progress model

Guidelines for Contributors to the Journal


The Journal of the Kentucky Academy of Science (JKAS) publishes original research papers and notes on all areas encompassed by the Academy. Review papers will be considered for  publication, but the Editor should be consulted in advance.  The JKAS will publish manuscripts from   symposiums and special workshops; again, the Editor should be consulted as  symposium plans are developed.  Announcements, news, and other Academy information (as listed in the bylaws) will be included as received.
Authors do not have to be members of the Academy.
Acceptance of papers for publication in JKAS depends on merit as evaluated by each of two or more external reviewers. All decisions by the Editor(s) are final.
Manuscripts may be submitted at any time to the editors via e-mail ( as MS Word documents.
In the accompanying message, list your telephone and FAX numbers and the names, addresses, telephone numbers, and  email addresses of three potential reviewers.
Format/style of papers must conform to the guidelines below and also to practices in recent issues of  the JKAS that are, in effect, a style manual.


Papers should be in 12-point type with margins at least 1 inch all around. Double-space throughout the  paper (i.e., one full line of space between each two lines of text,  LITERATURE CITED, or tabular data). Do not justify right margins. Indent the first line of each paragraph (but not the first line of entries in the LITERATURE CITED – these should be hanging at 0.5 inch).

Except for scientific names of genera, and of infrageneric taxa, which should be typed in italics, the  same type (roman) should be used throughout (i.e. one type size only; bold only for paper title). Indicate the describer name the first time a species name is mentioned.

Sequence of sections in  papers should, where appropriate, be as follows: Title of Paper, name/address of author(s), ABSTRACT, 5-6 KEY WORDS (may repeat words in the title), body of paper, LITERATURE CITED, tables with captions above, figure captions, and figures (all on consecutively numbered pages).

The first page should include the running head at the top right of the page (see 5 below), the paper’s title and the name and address of author(s). These should be followed immediately by the abstract, key words, and footnote. The footnote should read “Corresponding author e-mail:”.

The running head (top right of first page) should give a short version of paper title - last name of author. If more than one author, use et al. (e.g. Smith et al.). Please limit to a total of 60 characters and spaces.

The abstract should not exceed 200 words and should be concise, descriptive, and complete in itself without reference to the paper (literature is not cited in the abstract).

Footnotes are not allowed except for the email address of the corresponding author and changes of address. Both types of footnotes should be at the bottom of the first page.

The body of the paper should include, where appropriate, the following sections: INTRODUCTION, MATERIALS AND METHODS, RESULTS, DISCUSSION, SUMMARY (optional),  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS, and LITERATURE CITED. Each section heading should be in capital letters and centered.
No more than three levels of  headings should be used: level 1, in capitals, centered; level 2, in capitals/lowercase, flush left; level 3, in italics, a paragraph indent with initial capital only (except proper nouns and adjectives), and followed by a period, the text then starting after one blank space.

Personal communications (avoid if possible) should be indicated in the text as follows: (name, affiliation, pers. comm., date) e.g., (O.T. Mark, Wainwright College,  pers. comm., 5 Jun 2013).


In text, spell out one-digit numbers unless they are used with units of measure (four oranges, 4 cm), and use numerals for larger numbers; do not begin any sentence with a numeral.
Measurements should be in metric and Celsius units (24 ºC). Define lesser-known symbols and give the meaning of acronyms at first use. Express time of day in the 24-hour system. Dates should be written day, month (abbreviated to three letters), year without internal punctuation. Units with multiple components should have individual components separated by a virgule (e.g., g/m2/yr).
Names of authors of binomials may be included but only at the first mention of the binomial. Cultivar names are not italicized but are enclosed in single quotes.
Useful guides for contributors to the JKAS are the following: Scientific style and format: the CBE manual for authors, editors, and publishers, 6th ed., Cambridge University Press, 1994; The Chicago manual of style, 15th ed., University  of Chicago Press, 2003; The ACS style guide, 1997; and AIP style manual,   4th ed, American Institute of Physics, New York 1997.


Cite publications in the text by author(s) and date - e.g., (Readley 1994); multiple citations should be  in chronological order and separated by semi-colons – e.g., (Foster 1976;  Ashley et al. 1987; Brown 1994); multiple citations of works by one author(s) should be in chronological order – e.g., (Jones 1978, 1983);  publications by one author(s) in the same year should be distinguished by a, b, c, etc. – e.g., (Smith 1994a, 1994b). For in-text references to works with one or two authors use names of both authors – e.g., (Jones and Williams 1991); for works with three or more authors use name of the first author followed by et al. – e.g., (Lee et al. 1985).
Do not include any reference unless it has been published or accepted for publication (“in press”; see below).


List all authors of each entry.
Do not abbreviate journal titles.
The first line of each reference should be typed flush left; the remaining lines should be  indented five spaces.
Examples of common types of references are given below.

Lacki, M. J. 1994. Metal concentrations in guano from a gray bat summer roost. Transactions Kentucky Academy Science 55:124-126.
Ware, M., and R. W. Tare.  1991. Plains life and love. Pioneer Press, Crete, WY.


Kohn, J .R. 1993. Pinaceae, Pages 32-50 in J. F. Nadel (ed). Flora of the Black Mountains. University of Northwestern South Dakota Press, Utopia.
Groves, S. J., I. V. Woodland, and G. H. Tobosa.  In press, Deserts of Trans-Pecos Texas.
Listing of web sites in the Literature Cited is not encouraged, but if it is needed, please follow the guide below.

Smith, A.W. 1999. Title of web site. Web site address. Date accessed (06/12/2005)



Images embedded in Word documents are acceptable only at the time of submission; illustrations will be submitted as separate files at time of acceptance for publication.

All images should be in the form of .tiff files with a resolution of at least 600 dpi. Use RGB color.

Figures should be sized correctly at the time of submission with publication in mind, so that figures and its lettering are legible. Figures can be one column width (~6.6vcm), partial page width, or across an entire page ~ (13.8 cm).

Use lowercase letters for sections of a figure.

Figure captions should be self-explanatory without reference to the text, and should be entered together at the end of the document on a page separate from the text. Number figures in Arabic numerals. Statistics presented in figures should be explained in the caption (e.g., “means are presented +/- standard error, n = 7”).


Each table should be numbered with an Arabic numeral and set on its own page at the end of the text.  Each table should have a caption beginning with a title relating the table to the paper of which it is a part; it should be informative of the table’s contents and should be self-explanatory without reference to the text.  Statistics presented in the table should be explained in the captions (e.g., “means are presented +/- standard error, n = 7”).

Tables should be formatted using the MS Word table function.  Data should be in separate table cells, not separated or aligned with tabs, spaces, or line breaks. The caption and any footnotes should be outside the table proper.


If vertebrate or invertebrate animals are involved in a research project, the author(s) should follow those guidelines for ethical treatment of animals appropriate for the subjects, e.g., for mammals or for amphibians and reptiles. Papers submitted to the JKAS will be rejected if their content violates either the letter or the spirit of the guidelines.


Authors are responsible for correcting proofs. Proofs must be returned to the editor within 3 days after the author receives them; delay in return may  result in delay of publication. The author also is responsible for checking all literature cited to make certain that each article or book is cited correctly. Extensive alterations on the galley proofs are expensive and costs will be borne by the author.


Authors will be given a high-quality pdf file of their paper.


Page charges have been dropped as of 2019 with the transition to an all-digital publishing model.


The first author (or corresponding author) must  sign a copyright agreement prior to an article appearing in the JKAS. The copyright agreement normally is completed and signed and returned to the Editor when a revised manuscript is returned to the Editor.

Copyright agreement 2017